These Cold War actions met with varying degrees of success. The United States has taken military and economic foreign policy actions to achieve that goal. These actions have resulted in varying degrees of success.
Branches of history History of the arts Histories have been written about architecturesculpturepaintingmusicdancetheatremotion picturestelevisionand literature. Despite essential differences, these forms of historiography have some common features.
One is that they are almost invariably produced outside history departments and faculties. For this reason they have tended to be regarded as somewhat exotic specialties.
Because the activities of artists are inevitably the central subject of most histories of the arts, such histories generally include formalistic analyses of artistic works. The distinction between history and philosophy in the case of art is thus less distinct than it is in other subject areas.
Finally, performance traditions figure prominently in histories of music, dance, and theatre.
Historians are seldom satisfied with purely formal analyses of art and are seldom competent to make them. Historians have tried to integrate art history into their studies in three fundamental ways. The first is to consider the material conditions of production.
Some of the issues are technical: What special effects were possible in an Elizabethan theatre? Others relate to patronage, since most artists have always worked for commissions or pensions given to them by the rich who in return got to appear in paintings, be mentioned in the prefaces of books, or attach their names to pieces of music.
Finally, the working conditions and social status of artists have been investigated. Artists in past centuries had little social prestige; they were regarded as artisans and were organized in guild workshops with apprentices or sons—Bach in Germany was almost a generic name for a musician.
A second approach, which became popular in the late 20th century, is to shift the emphasis from the artist to the audience. German literary critics carried this conception farthest in what they called Rezeptionstheorie. Occasionally, however, there is evidence of how ordinary readers reacted to novels e.
Reception theory has been particularly fruitful in the field of history of the moving image, since sophisticated means of measuring and evaluating audience responses are available and, in television at least, slavishly followed. The most ambitious—and most controversial—way of integrating art history into historiography relies on such notions as a zeitgeistor spirit of an age.
The history of painting has gained the most attention from scholars in part because paintings are traded commodities that often require authentication by experts.
The authentication of modern paintings seldom requires the services of a professional historian, but works from previous centuries, especially those in which the cult of the individual artistic genius had not fully developed and paintings were not always signed, often do.
One of the great art historians of the early 20th century, Bernard Berenson —borrowed a technique for attributions that depended on mannerisms of painting ears and noses, but he also overestimated his ability to identify paintings by the Italian Renaissance master Giorgione and others, incidentally making large sums for himself.
Art history is thus a field in which detecting forgeries is still a live issue. One of the great forgers of the 20th century, Hans van Meegeren, succeeded in passing off a number of his own canvases as works of the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. The Holy Family, oil painting by Giorgione, c. Kress Collection Art historians have taken a variety of approaches.
Paintings and works of sculpture also can have an intellectual content. One school of art historians, most prominently identified with Erwin Panofsky —studied iconology, or iconographywhich consists of the formal analysis of visual motifs used to express thematic content or to identify important figures thus, a skull or hourglass indicated death, and a figure carrying his skin over his shoulder referred to St.
Bartholomewwho according to legend was flayed. To understand such paintings, knowledge of iconology is necessary but not sufficient. Iconologists have tried to move beyond providing simple lists of motifs to developing treatments of how motifs change and of what these changes indicate regarding the cultural and intellectual context of the painting.
Painting has not escaped the conceptual issue besetting most of the arts: Several developments challenge historians of contemporary art: In Transfiguration of the Commonplacethe American philosopher of art Arthur Danto argued that art is at an end, since there is now no way to distinguish between works of art and urinals and no distinct mode in which works of art can convey their intellectual content.
Concurrently with this proclamation of the end of art came the question of whether art history has also come to an end. This is a typical postmodern provocation, of a piece with the claim that history as a whole has ended.
Biography and psychohistory Ancient biographyespecially the entire genre of hagiographysubordinated any treatment of individual character to the profuse repetition of edifying examples.History Camp brings together people from all walks of life who are passionate about history.
Now in its fifth year, History Camp Boston on July 7 will be a day of learning about history and sharing what you've learned. Here's how one of the participants described it, “I’ve been to dozens of off. What topics are covered on the U.S.
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