The cell, the gene, evolution and biological organisation. The concept of the cell covers major topics such as cell division, chromosome structure, sexual reproduction, germ cells, meiosis and fertilisation. The concept of evolution introduces topics such as the Mesozoic ecosystem structure and the transition of life to land, including the dominance of insects, amphibians and reptiles. Consideration will be given to the physiological problems of life on land reproductive freedom from water, breathing air [especially during the mid-Devonian drop in global oxygen levels], water conservation and the emergence of the mammal-like reptiles.
This frequently causes problems! The graph below show typical changes Gcse science coursework enzymes concentration or amount of moles remaining of a reactant with time, for zero, 1st and 2nd order. In the zero order graph the gradient is constant as the rate is independent of concentration, so the graph is of a linear descent in concentration of reactant.
The 2nd order graph tends to 'decay' more steeply than 1st order BUT that proves nothing! The idea is that somehow you test for the order with an appropriate linear graph Connect the graphs with the following: Some possible graphical results are shown above.
Of course  to  could simply represent inaccurate data! There is another graphical way of showing the order with respect to a reactant is 1st order, but it requires accurate data showing how the concentration or moles remaining of a reactant changes with time within a single experiment apart from repeats to confirm the pattern.
The rate of radioactive decay is an example of 1st order kinetics. The graph below shows what happens to a reactant with a half—life of 5 minutes.
It is the constancy of the half—life which proves the 1st order kinetics. The mathematics of 1st order rate equations units. So simplified rate data questions and their solution is given below.
So simplified rate data questions and their solutions avoiding graphical analysis are given below. These examples do NOT involve graphs directly, but a 'graphical' section of examples has been added in section 5. I've made the numbers quite simple to follow the logic of the argument. I've also shown how to calculate the rate constant.
These example calculations below are based on the initial rate of reaction analysis - so we are assuming the variation of concentration with time for each experimental run has been processed in some way e. The graph on the left illustrates the initial rate method for the formation of product.
The gradients A and B would be for two different concentrations of a reactant, the concentration for A would be greater than the concentration of B. The initial rate is taken as the positive tangent - gradient for the curve at the point 0,0.
The same argument applies if you imagine the graph inverted and you were following the depletion of a reactant. Then you would get two negative gradients one steeper than the other for the greater concentration.
Reminder [x] means concentration of x, usually mol dm-3 Example 1.
The table below gives some initial data for the reaction:Learn and research biology, science, chemistry, biology, physics, math, astronomy, electronics, and much more.
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