Recommend this article to your friends! Henri Fayol identified 5 functions of management, which he labelled: Henri Fayol theorized that these functions were universal, and that every manager performed these functions in their daily work. Henri Fayol also identified 14 general principles of management and organizing, which can be read about in the article:
Most of these academic programs have aimed to be multidisciplinary in nature—drawing upon theories and applications from related fields such as sociologypsychologyphilosophyand management.
Such an approach, Rost has argued "allows scholars and practitioners to think radically new thoughts about leadership that are not possible from a unidisciplinary approach" p. Contemporary leadership scholars and researchers have often been questioned about the nature of their work, and its place within the academy, but much of the confusion surrounding leadership as a field of study may be attributed to a lack of understanding regarding transdisciplinaryinter- and multi- disciplinary academic fields of study in general.
The discipline which encompasses a host of sub-fields is filled with definitions, theories, styles, functions, competencies, and historical examples of successful and diverse leaders.
Collectively, the research findings on leadership provide a far more sophisticated and complex view of the phenomenon than most of the simplistic views presented in the popular press. The Ohio State Leadership Studies which began in the s  and focused on how leaders could satisfy common group needs.
The findings indicated that the two most important dimensions in leadership included: These characteristics could be either high or low and were independent of one another.
The research was based on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. The Michigan Studies of Leadership  which began in the s  and indicated that leaders could be classified as either "employee centered," or "job centered.
These theories described employee motivation in the workforce.
Both theories begin with the premise that the role of management is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm. Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge.
They developed the leadership grid which focused on concern for results on the one axis and concern for people on the other axis. In addition to these studies, leadership has been examined from an academic perspective through several theoretical lenses: Attempt to describe the types of behavior and personality tendencies associated with effective leadership.
Incorporate environmental and situational considerations into leader behavior. The transactional leader focuses on managerial reward and contingent valuation.
The transformational leader focuses on motivation and goal attainment. Some of the styles of leadership studied include:Henri Fayol was one of the first theorists to define functions of management in his book “Administration Industrielle et Generale”.
Henri Fayol identified 5 functions of management, which he labelled: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
 Specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also (within the West) United States versus European approaches.
As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST OF TRAIT-BASED, SITUATIONAL, AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES 3 Comparison and Contrast of Trait-based, Situational, and Transformational Leadership Theories There are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have tried to.
Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade, resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories.
It was not until , in _____ that the first unified day-night police force was created.