Participation Products Participation products are kind of structured products can be one to one with the prices of the underlying assets, or with some leverage and certain discontinuities. Most common types of participation products that are traded in the market are; Open End Certificates, Outperformance Certificates, Bonus Certificates and Outperformance Bonus Certificates.

Sources[ edit ] Uncertainty on volatility[ edit ] Volatility is the most important input in risk management models and pricing models. Uncertainty on volatility leads to model risk.

Derman believes that products whose value depends on a volatility smile are most likely to suffer from model risk. He writes "I would think it's safe to say that there is no area where model risk is more of an issue than in the modeling of the volatility smile.

In these models the current yield curve is an input so that new observations on the yield curve can be used to update the model at regular frequencies. They explore the issue of time-consistent and self-financing strategies in this class of models.

Model risk affects all the three main steps of risk management: Cont and Deguest propose a method for computing model risk exposures in multi-asset equity derivatives and show that options which depend on the worst or best performances in a basket so called rainbow option are more exposed to model uncertainty than index options.

He prices these derivatives with various copulas and concludes that " This factor was cited as a major source of model risk for mortgage backed securities portfolios during the crisis. Illiquidity and model risk[ edit ] Model risk does not only exist for complex financial contracts. Frey presents a study of how market illiquidity is a source of model risk.

He writes "Understanding the robustness of models used for hedging and risk-management purposes with respect to the assumption of perfectly liquid markets is therefore an important issue in the analysis of model risk in general. Hedge funds that trade these securities can be exposed to model risk when calculating monthly NAV for its investors.

This approach to model risk has been developed by Cont The problem is how to choose these benchmark models. A measure of exposure to model risk is then given by the difference between the current portfolio valuation and the worst-case valuation under the benchmark models.

Such a measure may be used as a way of determining a reserve for model risk for derivatives portfolios.

They write "From a quantitative perspective, in the case of pricing models, we can set up a reserve to allow for the difference in estimations using alternative models.

In the case of risk measurement models, scenario analysis can be undertaken for various fluctuation patterns of risk factors, or position limits can be established based on information obtained from scenario analysis.Although Black-Scholes formula is very popular among market practitioners, when applied to call and put options, it often reduces to a means of quoting options in terms of .

Black-Scholes-Merton volatilities which are used as input for the trading and risk systems.1 The evolution of close to zero or even negative (forward) LIBOR and swaprates in major cur- rencies has made this representation to become obsolete as more and more option prices vio-.

Rather than backing out volatility by applying the Black Scholes model in reverse to at the money options, local volatilities use implied volatilities and a one factor Black Scholes model to drive local volatility values across the surface.

The Black-Scholes formula is a limiting case of the binomial formula (infinitely many periods) for the price of a European option.

Option greek - delta Delta (D): change in . Implied Volatility: General Properties and Asymptotics October 14, Case Study: Black-Scholes Implied Volatilities in Practice The topic for this case study is to apply the Black-Scholes model to calculate the strike price of the F.X.

options and estimate the implied volatilities in practice, finally delta-hedged strategy will be.

Because of recent events. you can simply solve the Black-Scholes model and find the implied standard deviation. Mal states that you can find the estimated volatility of the stock for future periods by calculating the implied standard deviation of option contracts on the company stock.

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